The code contains some efficient algorithms for 2D tasks:
- creating a convex polygon,
- checking whether the the polygon is convex,
- creating axis-aligned bounding box (AABB) around a group of point,
- checking AABBs for intersection,
- creating a bounding container convex hull around a group of points,
- checking whether the point is inside of polygon,
- some other method and functions that can be used for learning or as reference.
- intersection of segments,
- polygon-to-polygon intersection algorithm,
- more efficient code for building convex hulls,
- optimizations for triangles and quads (I guess these types of polygons are used most often).
Last version 9.03.2009 has following changes:
- improved monotone_chain() algorithm,
- fixed bug in AABB2D() class.
This code is in Python and contains lots of calculations, so, if you want to use it in real life, you will need to install Psyco (thanks for good advice, ynjh_jo!). With Psyco, it’s lightning fast, and can be used for real game development (although, it would be great if someone ports it to C++ and add to Panda).
Methods crossingNumber() and windingNumber() are given only for reference if you are going to develop point-in-polygon test for concave polygons (source: http://softsurfer.com/Archive/algorithm_0103/algorithm_0103.htm). After heavy testing I discovered that they both have problems in identifying point-in-polygon when the point lies on an upward edge. So, they have to be improved if you are going to use them. But in real life we mostly use convex polygons, and pointInside() method is absolutely sufficient (and runs faster).
Please, feel free to test and check it, and maybe even to develop further.
PS: I am going to develop steering behaviors and navmesh pathfinding on top of this code (and A-star) and make it available soon. I even hope it will run faster then PandaSteer2!
# Classes and functions for polygons, convex hulls (including # bounding container convex hulls), point-in-polygon test and so on. import psyco #psyco.full() psyco.profile() def isConvex(hull): '''Returns True if the given points form convex hull with vertices in ccw order.''' def _isLeft(q, r, p): return (r-q)*(p-q) - (p-q)*(r-q) i = -2 j = -1 for k in range(len(hull)): p = hull[i] q = hull[j] r = hull[k] if _isLeft(p, q, r) <= 0: return False i = j j = k return True def monotone_chain(points): '''Returns a convex hull for an unordered group of 2D points. Uses Andrew's Monotone Chain Convex Hull algorithm.''' def _isLeft(q, r, p): return (r-q)*(p-q) - (p-q)*(r-q) # Remove duplicates (this part of code is useless for Panda's # Point2 or Point3! In their case set() doesn't remove duplicates; # this is why internally this class has all points as (x,y) tuples). points = list(set(points)) # Sort points first by X and then by Y component. points.sort() # Now, points is the lowest leftmost point, and point[-1] is # the highest rightmost point. The line through points and points[-1] # will become dividing line between the upper and the lower groups # of points. p0x, p0y = points p1x, p1y = points[-1] # Initialize upper and lower stacks as empty lists. U =  L =  # For each point: for p in points: # First, we check if the point in # i.e. points is left or right or # colinear to the dividing line through points and points[-1]: cross = (p1x-p0x)*(p-p0y) - (p-p0x)*(p1y-p0y) # If the point is lower or colinear, test it for inclusion # into the lower stack. if cross <= 0: # While L contains at least two points and the sequence # of the last two points in L and p does not make # a counter-clockwise turn: while len(L) >= 2 and _isLeft(L[-2], L[-1], p) <= 0: L.pop() L.append(p) # If the point is higher or colinear, test it for inclusion # into the upper stack. if cross >= 0: # While U contains at least two points and the sequence # of the last two points in U and p does not make # a clockwise turn: while len(U) >= 2 and _isLeft(U[-2], U[-1], p) >= 0: U.pop() U.append(p) L.pop() U.reverse() U.pop() return L+U def isLeft(qx, qy, rx, ry, px, py): '''Returns 2D cross product: >0 for p left of the infinite line through q and r, =0 for p on the line, <0 for p right of the line. Requires 6 integers or floats for 3 consecutive points: point1_x, point1_y, point2_x, point2_y, point3_x, point3_y.''' return (rx-qx)*(py-qy) - (px-qx)*(ry-qy) def isLeft2(q, r, p): '''Returns 2D cross product: >0 for p left of the infinite line through q and r, =0 for p on the line, <0 for p right of the line. Requires three consecutive points with (X, Y) as input. If present, Z component is ignored.''' return (r-q)*(p-q) - (p-q)*(r-q) class AABB2D(): '''Axis-aligned bounding box for 2D shapes. Represents minimum and maximum X and Y coordinates for the contained shape.''' def __init__(self, points): '''To be constructed, AABB requires a list of points with two coordinates (X, Y) each. If present, Z coordinate is ignored.''' self.minX = self.maxX = points self.minY = self.maxY = points self._calc(points) def _calc(self, points): i = 1 # Not from 0! while i < len(points): px, py = points[i] self.minX = min(self.minX, px) self.maxX = max(self.maxX, px) self.minY = min(self.minY, py) self.maxY = max(self.maxY, py) i += 1 def getCenter(self): '''Returns the center of the AABB.''' x = (self.minX + self.maxX) / 2.0 y = (self.minY + self.maxY) / 2.0 return (x, y) def isInside(self, point): '''Returns True if the given point is inside of this AABB.''' px, py = point if (px - self.minX) * (px - self.maxX) < 0: return False if (py - self.minY) * (py - self.maxY) < 0: return False return True def intersect(self, aabb): '''Tests if this AABB intersects with another AABB. Returns a tuple of values that describe the area of intersection: (leftmost X of intersection, rightmost X of itersection, lowest Y of intersection, highest Y of itersection), or (min X, max X, min Y, max Y). Or 'False' if they don't intersect.''' if self.minX > aabb.maxX or self.maxX < aabb.minX: return False if self.minY > aabb.maxY or self.maxY < aabb.minY: return False minX = max(self.minX, aabb.minX) maxX = min(self.maxX, aabb.maxX) minY = max(self.minY, aabb.minY) maxY = min(self.maxY, aabb.maxY) return (minX, maxX, minY, maxY) class ConvexPolygon(): '''Class for convex polygons in 2D. To be constructed, requires 3 or more different points/vertices. Assumes that polygon is convex, and all vertices are given in counter-clockwise order. Acceptable format for points is "(x, y)", Panda's built-in Point2 or Point3 (but internally they all are transformed into "(x, y)" tuple). It can be used to create a bounding convex hull for an unordered group of points. To do this, pass keyword argument "create=True" to the constructor. Then duplicate and redundant points will be removed and the new "clean" bounding convex hull will be created by applying Andrew's Monotone Chain Convex Hull algorithm: http://www.algorithmist.com/index.php/Monotone_Chain_Convex_Hull''' def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): '''Pass it least 3 vertices into constructor. Vertices are assumed to be on 2D plane and be given in counter-clockwise order.''' if len(args) == 1: args = args points =  for v in args: if not (isinstance(v, tuple) or isinstance(v, list)): v = (v, v) points.append(v) # Initially, it is assumed that given points are vertices of # a convex hull in ccw order: self.vertices = points if "create" in kwargs: if kwargs["create"]: # Create bounding convex hull: self.vertices = monotone_chain(points) self.numVertices = len(self.vertices) # Create bounding box: self.aabb = AABB2D(self.vertices) def __repr__(self): vl = self.vertices for i in range(self.numVertices): vl[i] = str(vl[i]) res = "\n".join(vl) return res def isInside(self, point): '''Simplified winding number algorithm for convex polys. If the point is within the poly then the endVertex of any edge must always be to the left from the infinite line through point and startVertex. If they are colinear and the point is inside of the AABB of the edge, the point is actually on the edge. Currently, this implementation is the fastest one (2.4 seconds for 1 mln executions on my computer).''' px = point py = point i = -1 j = 0 while j < self.numVertices: qx, qy = self.vertices[i] rx, ry = self.vertices[j] x = (rx-qx)*(py-qy) - (px-qx)*(ry-qy) if x <= 0: if x == 0: # for colinear if (px - qx) * (px - rx) > 0: return False if (py - qy) * (py - ry) > 0: return False return True return False # for right turns i = j j += 1 return True def windingNumber(self, point): '''Winding number point-in-polygon test. Has some difficulties when the point is located on an upward edge. Reference: http://softsurfer.com/Archive/algorithm_0103/algorithm_0103.htm''' def _isLeft(qx, qy, rx, ry, px, py): return (rx-qx)*(py-qy) - (px-qx)*(ry-qy) wn = 0 px = point py = point i = -1 j = 0 while j < self.numVertices: qx, qy = self.vertices[i] rx, ry = self.vertices[j] if (px, py) == (qx, qy): return True if qy <= py: if ry > py: cross = _isLeft(qx, qy, rx, ry, px, py) if cross > 0: wn += 1 else: if ry <= py: cross = _isLeft(qx, qy, rx, ry, px, py) if cross < 0: wn -= 1 i = j j += 1 if wn == 0: return False return True def crossingNumber(self, point): '''Crossing number point-in-polygon test. Has some difficulties when the point is located on an upward edge. Reference: http://softsurfer.com/Archive/algorithm_0103/algorithm_0103.htm''' cn = 0 px = point py = point i = -1 j = 0 while j < self.numVertices: qx, qy = self.vertices[i] rx, ry = self.vertices[j] if (px, py) == (qx, qy): return True if ( ((qy <= py) and (ry > py)) or \ ((qy > py) and (ry <= py)) ): vt = (py - qy) / (ry - qy) if (px < qx + vt * (rx - qx)): cn += 1 i = j j += 1 return cn%2